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Clinical outcomes associated with Achromobacter species infection in people with cystic fibrosis

Published:November 20, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcf.2022.11.001

      Highlights

      • Achromobacter species are emerging pathogens isolated from respiratory samples of patients with cystic fibrosis causing growing concerns in the CF community.
      • European CF society patient registry data was analysed for association between Achromobacter infection and demographic/clinical characteristics and outcomes.
      • Patient infected with Achromobacter had similar pulmonary function and BMI to patients infected with P. aeruginosa at all age groups.
      • Being infected with both bacteria was associated with significantly lower pulmonary function and BMI at all age groups.

      Abstract

      Background

      Achromobacter species are emerging pathogens isolated from respiratory samples of Patients with cystic fibrosis (pwCF) causing growing concerns in the CF community. The epidemiology and the clinical impact of Achromobacter in CF is unclear since data are restricted to small case control studies or selected populations.

      Aim

      To characterize the effect of Achromobacter respiratory infection on CF lung disease.

      Methods

      European CF Society Patient Registry data was analysed for association between Achromobacter infection and demographic/clinical characteristics and outcomes of pwCF.

      Results

      Of eligible 38,795 patients, Achromobacter infection was reported in 2,093 (prevalence (95% CI) of 5.40% (5.17 - 5.62). The prevalence varied significantly between the countries and increased with age peaking at the age 20–30. Achromobacter infection was more prevalent in pwCF carrying class minimal function mutations, having worse nutrition or lower pulmonary function, and more patients inhaled antibiotics against P. aeruginosa. Patient infected with Achromobacter had similar pulmonary function and BMI to patients infected with P. aeruginosa at all age groups. Being infected with both bacteria was associated with significantly lower pulmonary function and BMI at all age groups.

      Conclusions

      Achromobacter infection was associated with disease severity similar to infection with P. aeruginosa. Being infected with both bacteria is associated with even more severe disease. This suggests to study if eradication will improve the outcome of pwCF.
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