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Antibiotics and outcomes of CF pulmonary exacerbations in children infected with MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Published:August 07, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcf.2022.08.001

      Highlights

      • Polymicrobial infections in people with cystic fibrosis are common.
      • Optimal treatment strategies for polymicrobial infections are not known.
      • Antibiotic treatment for all known endobronchial infections may not be needed.

      Background

      Limited data exist to inform antibiotic selection among people with cystic fibrosis (CF) with airway infection by multiple CF-related microorganisms. This study aimed to determine among children with CF co-infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) if the addition of anti-MRSA antibiotics to antipseudomonal antibiotic treatment for pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) would be associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with antipseudomonal antibiotics alone.

      Methods

      Retrospective cohort study using data from the CF Foundation Patient Registry-Pediatric Health Information System linked dataset. The odds of returning to baseline lung function and having a subsequent PEx requiring intravenous antibiotics were compared between PEx treated with anti-MRSA and antipseudomonal antibiotics and those treated with antipseudomonal antibiotics alone, adjusting for confounding by indication using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

      Results

      943 children with CF co-infected with MRSA and Pa contributed 2,989 PEx for analysis. Of these, 2,331 (78%) PEx were treated with both anti-MRSA and antipseudomonal antibiotics and 658 (22%) PEx were treated with antipseudomonal antibiotics alone. Compared with PEx treated with antipseudomonal antibiotics alone, the addition of anti-MRSA antibiotics to antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy was not associated with a higher odds of returning to ≥90% or ≥100% of baseline lung function or a lower odds of future PEx requiring intravenous antibiotics.

      Conclusions

      Children with CF co-infected with MRSA and Pa may not benefit from the addition of anti-MRSA antibiotics for PEx treatment. Prospective studies evaluating optimal antibiotic selection strategies for PEx treatment are needed to optimize clinical outcomes following PEx treatment.

      Keywords

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