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Antipseudomonal treatment decisions during CF exacerbation management

Published:April 21, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcf.2022.04.006

      Highlights

      • Exacerbation treatment outcomes for STOP2 subjects with P. aeruginosa were studied.
      • Outcomes were compared across number of antipseudomonal classes used.
      • Lung function and symptom changes and future exacerbation risks were compared.
      • Patients receiving one class fared no worse than those receiving two or more classes.

      Abstract

      Background

      Cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) treatment guidelines suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) airway infection be treated with two antipseudomonal agents.

      Methods

      We retrospectively studied treatment responses for STOP2 PEx treatment trial (NCT02781610) participants with a history of Pa infection. Mean lung function and symptom changes from intravenous (IV) antimicrobial treatment start to Visit 2 (7 to 10 days later) were compared between those receiving one, two, and three+ antipseudomonal classes before Visit 2 by ANCOVA. Odds of PEx retreatment with IV antimicrobials within 30 days and future IV-treated PEx hazard were modeled by logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively. Sensitivity analyses limited to the most common one-, two-, and three-class regimens, to only IV/oral antipseudomonal treatments, and with more stringent Pa infection definitions were conducted.

      Results

      Among 751 participants, 50 (6.7%) were treated with one antipseudomonal class before Visit 2, while 552 (73.5%) and 149 (19.8%) were treated with two and with three+ classes, respectively. Females and participants with a negative Pa culture in the prior month were more likely to be treated with a single class. The most common single, double, and triple class regimens were beta-lactam (BL; n = 42), BL/aminoglycoside (AG; n = 459), and BL/AG/fluoroquinolone (FQ; n = 73). No lung function or symptom response, odds of retreatment, or future PEx hazard differences were observed by number of antipseudomonal classes administered in primary or sensitivity analyses.

      Conclusions

      We were unable to identify additional benefit when multiple antipseudomonal classes are used to treat PEx in people with CF and Pa.

      Keywords

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