Association of site of treatment with clinical outcomes following intravenous antimicrobial treatment of a pulmonary exacerbation

Published:November 29, 2021DOI:


      • The impact of home vs hospital care is an important clinical question in the treatment of pulmonary exacerbations (PEx).
      • We assessed treatment responses for adults with CF treated for PEx with intravenous antibiotics at home, in the hospital, or both.
      • Compared to PEx treatment at home only, treatment in the hospital was associated with greater mean lung function, respiratory symptom, and weight improvements.



      In the STOP2 (Standardized Treatment of Pulmonary Exacerbations-2) study, intravenous (IV) antimicrobial treatment duration for adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) experiencing pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) was determined based on initial treatment response. The impact of home vs hospital care remains an important clinical question in CF. Our hypothesis was that STOP2 participants treated at home would have less improvement in lung function compared to those treated in the hospital.


      Treating clinicians determined PEx treatment location, which was a stratification factor for STOP2 randomization. Lung function, weight, and symptom recovery were evaluated by treatment location. Propensity scores and inverse probability treatment weighting were used to test for differences in clinical response by treatment location.


      In all, 33% of STOP2 participants received IV antimicrobials in the hospital only, 46% both in the hospital and at home, and 21% at home only. Mean (95% CI) ppFEV1 improvement was significantly (p < 0.05) lower for those treated at home only, 5.0 (3.5, 6.5), compared with at home and in the hospital, 7.0 (5.9, 8.1), and in the hospital only, 8.0 (6.7, 9.4). Mean weight (p < 0.001) and symptom (p < 0.05) changes were significantly smaller for those treated at home only compared to those treated in the hospital only.


      Compared to PEx treatment at home only, treatment in the hospital was associated with greater mean lung function, respiratory symptom, and weight improvements. The limitations of home IV therapy should be addressed in order to optimize outcomes for adults with CF treated at home.


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